Help BMB - Table of contents Discipline

General - Bibliographical
Bibliographies (including bibliographies of modern scholars often found in Festschriften), reports on conferences, major scholarly projects, etc.

General - Cultural and Historical
Articles whose subject matter is too broad for one or two categories.
   e.g. an article on the survival of Gothic culture in Italy, on religion, law and language;
          an article on Bulgaria's place in the medieval world.

All levels of government (central and local), including the administration of towns, territories, lordships; machinery of government, including exchequers, chanceries, courts of justice, types and methods of taxation (but for papal taxes and church dues, such as tithes SEE Ecclesiastical).

Archaeology - General
Archaeological methodology and techniques, theory, environmental archaeology, and surveys of the archaeology of a region or county.

Archaeology - Artefacts
Articles analysing the dating, style, function, typology etc. of particular finds, such as ceramics, skeletons, grave-goods etc.

Archaeology - Sites
Reports and studies on excavations of individual sites, including fieldwork.

Architecture - General
Architectural style or features found in a wide range of buildings, both secular and religious, or on building construction and techniques generally; surveys of aspects of the architecture of a particular district or region.

Architecture - Religious
Architecture of cathedrals, churches, monasteries, chapels and other religious houses etc.

Architecture - Secular
Vernacular architecture, palaces, houses, secular buildings etc; infrastructure such as harbours, bridges and gates.

Archives and Sources
Articles that study modern-day archival collections (including photographic collections); catalogues or surveys of such collections; exhibitions, conservation and restoration of such collections.
For articles on medieval collections of documents, such as exchequer rolls, or books in medieval libraries SEE Charters and Diplomatics and Manuscripts and Palaeography respectively.

Art History - General
Periodisation, schools and movements of art; themes, symbols or iconography in various art forms, methodology, analysis of style, sources in general, patronage, contemporary criticism etc; surveys of various aspects of the art of a particular district or region.

Art History - Decorative Arts
Design and production of artefacts such as textiles, tapestries, embroidery, metalwork, ivory-carving, enamels, jewellery, mosaics, pavements, tiles, reliquaries, stained glass etc.

Art History - Painting
Paintings (including icons, altar-pieces and wall-paintings), illumination of manuscripts, book illustration, drawings and figurative representations; studies of individual painters or workshops.

Art History - Sculpture
Figure-sculpture in the round or in relief, produced by carving, moulding or casting, including statues, effigies; non-figural artefacts such as crosses or capitals; individual artists and workshops.

Canon Law
Conciliar or synodal decrees; canonists, decretals, canonical treatises and collections.

Charters and Diplomatics
Studies or editions of charters and other documents, both individual examples and in theoretical terms, also sigillography (sphragistics) and the activity of notaries.

Crusades and related military expeditions to the Holy Land and the Eastern Mediterranean, as well as the Baltic Crusades and minor crusades (e.g. Albigensian, Despenser). Unless they deal with crusades per se, articles dealing with the Crusader States in Syria and Palestine are included under the relevant other topic.
   e.g. an article discussing the succession to King Baldwin II of Jerusalem is listed under Politics and Diplomacy

Daily Life
Costume, food and eating habits, games, recreations, sport, hunting, mentalities, material culture etc.

Studies of population, such as birth rates, demographic aspects of plague and disease.

Ecclesiastical History
The institutional secular church, including church administration and structure at all levels (parish, deanery, diocese, province); ecclesiastical politics; the papacy and cardinals; tithes and other church dues; councils and synods; the regulation of heresy, pilgrimage, preaching or the sacraments; schisms.
For religious orders, SEE Monasticism.

Economics - General
Macroeconomic issues, e.g. money-supply, inflation, productivity, recession; weights and measures; economic analysis of concepts such as feudalism; economic analysis of a particular district or region.

Economics - Rural
Economic activity and production in the countryside; agriculture, pastoralism, wine-growing; land tenure and estate managenment.

Economics - Trade
Merchants and their activities; trade treaties and laws; international trade; trade-routes and shipping; local trade and finance related to trade.

Economics - Urban
Economic activity and production in towns or cities and the related structures, such as markets.
Urban industries and crafts may include textile-production, butchers, shoemakers. Economic activities of guilds.

Universities, episcopal and monastic schools; grammar schools and lay education; students, masters, textbooks and curricula.

Inscriptions, including graffiti, runes and ogham, as well as papyrology.

Folk Studies
Traditional customs and beliefs; pre-Christian religions and mythology; paganism and superstition; divination, charms and witchcraft; popular culture and festivals. SEE Science for alchemy and astrology.

Genealogy and Prosopography
Studies of individual families or dynasties; biographies; prosopographical analysis of specific social or kinship groups.

Geography and Settlement Studies
Settlement studies, deserted settlements, landscape history, topography, land-use and town-planning; travel, exploration and cartography; climate and environment; studies of charter- and parish-boundaries.

All aspects of saints and sanctity, including the canonisation process; miracles, cults and relics; Vitae and other records of saints' lives.

Hebrew and Jewish Studies
All aspects of Jewish life, including the Jewish faith, conversion to and from Judaism, antijudaism and the Hebrew and Yiddish languages and literatures.

Coats of arms, armorials, liveries and badges, flags and banners; the activities of heralds.

Medieval histories, chronicles, annals and other historiographical texts and their authors.

Grammar, syntax, lexicology, lexicography, morphology, etymology, phonology and sociolinguistics of medieval languages and texts.

Secular law, including customary and Roman law; specific laws and legal practices.

Humanism and the transmission of the learning of classical Antiquity (‘Fortleben’); also on revivals and renaissances of classical culture.

Literature - General
Literary theory, discussion of genres, stylistic features or movements that cross drama/verse/prose.

Literature - Drama
Drama, including liturgical drama, mystery plays, passion plays and morality plays; acting and staging of drama.

Literature - Prose
Prose works of imaginative literature (or belles-lettres), but not handbooks or works of practical instruction. Where devotional literature is known primarily for its devotional quality rather than its literary merit, it is classified under Religious Life.

Literature - Verse
Verse works of imaginative literature: epic, lyric (including songs and ballads).

Liturgical rites, texts and services; vestments; hymns, sequences, antiphons and chants; prayers, liturgical calendars.

Local History
The history of a particular place, district or region, especially when these draw on subject-matter which takes in different disciplines.

Manuscripts and Palaeography
Codicology, scriptoria, scribes, scripts; book production and trade; medieval libraries, catalogues and booklists; literacy; antiquarian collectors and their collections. A study of an individual manuscript of a particular work is classified under the section relevant to the work itself. Thus, an article examining a manuscript of the Canterbury Tales is classified under Literature - Verse.

Maritime Studies
Navigation, ships and shipbuilding, maritime law, piracy, sea transport.

Medical practitioners, including physicians, surgeons and dentists; health and disease, pharmacists, medical training, hospitals and hospices; medical treatises and handbooks.

Military History
Military campaigns, battles, and sieges; theories and rules of war; strategy and tactics; recruitment and military service; castles and other defensive structures (from a military rather than purely architectural perspective); weaponry and armour; tournaments and jousting.

Religious orders (male and female), including monks, canons, friars, nuns and military and hospitaller orders. For confraternities and lay religious organisations SEE Religious Life.

Musical works and performance; instruments, notation, musicians.

Coins, coin-hoards, mints, moneyers; discussions of money-supply; forgery and debasement of coinage.

Placenames and other topographical names; personal names (forenames and surnames); ethnic and tribal names.

Philosophers, philosophical movements and commentaries, the medieval discipline of logic or dialectic, and subjects such as epistemology and metaphysics.

Political Thought
Political philosophy, medieval theories of kingship (including the genre of `advice for princes') political order, constitutions etc.

Politics and Diplomacy
Relations between different states; parliaments and representative assemblies; the emergence of states, royal or imperial power, elections and successions.

Printing History
Individual printers, workshops and publishing history of printed books; typography; paper, watermarks, woodcuts for printing.

Religious Life
Spirituality and the practice of religion; hermits, recluses and anchorites; lay piety; mysticism and contemplation; devotional literature, pilgrimage, asceticism, lay movements such as béguines or confraternities, and the practices of heretical movements; religious activities of guilds.

Scientific thought; mathematics, astronomy, alchemy, astrology, natural philosophy (such as zoology or botany).

Sermons and Preaching
Vernacular and Latin sermons, homilies, preaching aids and handbooks, etc.

Social History
Social and family structures, marriage and kinship patterns, social origins of popular movements, crime, law and order, sexuality etc; surveys of the society of a particular region or district.

Techniques and technical aspects of mining and other industries, including weaving, metallurgy; energy and power etc.

Theology and Biblical Study
Bible study and exegesis, speculative theology, vernacular translations and paraphrases from the Bible.

Women’s Studies
Studies of women; articles from a feminist perspective; misogyny and attitudes to women; women's roles in the home, work and society.